Macbeth, Act 4, scene 3 | The Folger SHAKESPEARE (2022)

Enter Malcolm and Macduff.

Let us seek out some desolate shade and there
Weep our sad bosoms empty.
MACDUFFLet us rather
Hold fast the mortal sword and, like good men,
5Bestride our downfall’nbirthdom. Each new morn
New widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows
Strike heaven on the face, that it resounds
As if it felt with Scotland, and yelled out
Like syllable of dolor.
MALCOLM10What I believe, I’ll wail;
What know, believe; and what I can redress,
As I shall find the time to friend, I will.
What you have spoke, it may be so, perchance.
This tyrant, whose sole name blisters our tongues,
15Was once thought honest. You have loved him well.
He hath not touched you yet. I am young, but



ACT 4. SC. 3

You may deserveof him through me, and wisdom
To offer up a weak, poor, innocent lamb
20T’ appease an angry god.
I am not treacherous.
MALCOLMBut Macbeth is.
A good and virtuous nature may recoil
In an imperial charge. But I shall crave your
That which you are, my thoughts cannot transpose.
Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell.
Though all things foul would wear the brows of
30Yet grace must still look so.
MACDUFFI have lost my hopes.
Perchance even there where I did find my doubts.
Why in that rawness left you wife and child,
Those precious motives, those strong knots of love,
35Without leave-taking? I pray you,
Let not my jealousies be your dishonors,
But mine own safeties. You may be rightly just,
Whatever I shall think.
MACDUFFBleed, bleed, poor country!
40Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure,
For goodness dare not check thee. Wear thou thy
The title is affeered.—Fare thee well, lord.
I would not be the villain that thou think’st
45For the whole space that’s in the tyrant’s grasp,
And the rich East to boot.
MALCOLMBe not offended.
I speak not as in absolute fear of you.
I think our country sinks beneath the yoke.
50It weeps, it bleeds, and each new day a gash
Is added to her wounds. I think withal



(Video) Act 4 scene 3 Folger's Macbeth

ACT 4. SC. 3

There would be hands uplifted in my right;
And here from gracious England have I offer
Of goodly thousands. But, for all this,
55When I shall tread upon the tyrant’s head
Or wear it on my sword, yet my poor country
Shall have more vices than it had before,
More suffer, and more sundry ways than ever,
By him that shall succeed.
MACDUFF60What should he be?
It is myself I mean, in whom I know
All the particulars of vice so grafted
That, when they shall be opened, black Macbeth
Will seem as pure as snow, and the poor state
65Esteem him as a lamb, being compared
With my confineless harms.
MACDUFFNot in the legions
Of horrid hell can come a devil more damned
In evils to top Macbeth.
MALCOLM70I grant him bloody,
Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful,
Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sin
That has a name. But there’s no bottom, none,
In my voluptuousness. Your wives, your daughters,
75Your matrons, and your maids could not fill up
The cistern of my lust, and my desire
All continent impediments would o’erbear
That did oppose my will. Better Macbeth
Than such an one to reign.
MACDUFF80Boundless intemperance
In nature is a tyranny. It hath been
Th’ untimely emptying of the happy throne
And fall of many kings. But fear not yet
To take upon you what is yours. You may
85Convey your pleasures in a spacious plenty
And yet seem cold—the time you may so hoodwink.



ACT 4. SC. 3

We have willing dames enough. There cannot be
That vulture in you to devour so many
As will to greatness dedicate themselves,
90Finding it so inclined.
MALCOLMWith this there grows
In my most ill-composed affection such
A stanchless avarice that, were I king,
I should cut off the nobles for their lands,
95Desire his jewels, and this other’s house;
And my more-having would be as a sauce
To make me hunger more, that I should forge
Quarrels unjust against the good and loyal,
Destroying them for wealth.
MACDUFF100This avarice
Sticks deeper, grows with more pernicious root
Than summer-seeming lust, and it hath been
The sword of our slain kings. Yet do not fear.
Scotland hath foisons to fill up your will
105Of your mere own. All these are portable,
With other graces weighed.
But I have none. The king-becoming graces,
As justice, verity, temp’rance, stableness,
Bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness,
110Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude,
I have no relish of them but abound
In the division of each several crime,
Acting it many ways. Nay, had I power, I should
Pour the sweet milk of concord into hell,
115Uproar the universal peace, confound
All unity on earth.
MACDUFFO Scotland, Scotland!
If such a one be fit to govern, speak.
I am as I have spoken.
MACDUFF120Fit to govern?



(Video) Macbeth, Act 4, scene 3 | The Folger SHAKESPEARE

ACT 4. SC. 3

No, not to live.—O nation miserable,
With an untitled tyrant bloody-sceptered,
When shalt thou see thy wholesome days again,
Since that the truest issue of thy throne
125By his own interdiction stands accursed
And does blaspheme his breed?—Thy royal father
Was a most sainted king. The queen that bore thee,
Oft’ner upon her knees than on her feet,
Died every day she lived. Fare thee well.
130These evils thou repeat’st upon thyself
Hath banished me from Scotland.—O my breast,
Thy hope ends here!
MALCOLMMacduff, this noble passion,
Child of integrity, hath from my soul
135Wiped the black scruples, reconciled my thoughts
To thy good truth and honor. Devilish Macbeth
By many of these trains hath sought to win me
Into his power, and modest wisdom plucks me
From overcredulous haste. But God above
140Deal between thee and me, for even now
I put myself to thy direction and
Unspeak mine own detraction, here abjure
The taints and blames I laid upon myself
For strangers to my nature. I am yet
145Unknown to woman, never was forsworn,
Scarcely have coveted what was mine own,
At no time broke my faith, would not betray
The devil to his fellow, and delight
No less in truth than life. My first false speaking
150Was this upon myself. What I am truly
Is thine and my poor country’s to command—
Whither indeed, before thyhere-approach,
Old Siward with ten thousand warlike men,
Already at a point, was setting forth.
155Now we’ll together, and the chance of goodness
Be like our warranted quarrel. Why are you silent?



ACT 4. SC. 3

Such welcome and unwelcome things at once
’Tis hard to reconcile.

Enter a Doctor.

MALCOLMWell, more anon.—
160Comes the King forth, I pray you?
Ay, sir. There are a crew of wretched souls
That stay his cure. Their malady convinces
The great assay of art, but at his touch
(Such sanctity hath heaven given his hand)
165They presently amend.
MALCOLMI thank you, doctor.
What’s the disease he means?
MALCOLM’Tis called the evil:
A most miraculous work in this good king,
170Which often since my here-remain in England
I have seen him do. How he solicits heaven
Himself best knows, but strangely visited people
All swoll’n and ulcerous, pitiful to the eye,
The mere despair of surgery, he cures,
175Hanging a golden stamp about their necks,
Put on with holy prayers; and, ’tis spoken,
To the succeeding royalty he leaves
The healing benediction. With this strange virtue,
He hath a heavenly gift of prophecy,
180And sundry blessings hang about his throne
That speak him full of grace.

Enter Ross.

(Video) Macbeth, Act 4, Scene 3 - Malcolm's speech

MACDUFFSee who comes here.
My countryman, but yet I know him not.

My ever-gentle cousin, welcome hither.
185I know him now.—Good God betimes remove
The means that makes us strangers!
ROSSSir, amen.
Stands Scotland where it did?
ROSSAlas, poor country,
190Almost afraid to know itself. It cannot
Be called our mother, but our grave, where nothing
But who knows nothing is once seen to smile;
Where sighs and groans and shrieks that rent the air
Are made, not marked; where violent sorrow seems
195A modern ecstasy. The dead man’s knell
Is there scarce asked for who, and good men’s lives
Expire before the flowers in their caps,
Dying or ere they sicken.
O relation too nice and yet too true!
MALCOLM200What’s the newest grief?
That of an hour’s age doth hiss the speaker.
Each minute teems a new one.
MACDUFFHow does my wife?
ROSSWhy, well.
MACDUFF205And all my children?
ROSSWell too.
The tyrant has not battered at their peace?
No, they were well at peace when I did leave ’em.
Be not a niggard of your speech. How goes ’t?
210When I came hither to transport the tidings



ACT 4. SC. 3

(Video) Audio Act 4 scene 3 NFS Macbeth

Which I have heavily borne, there ran a rumor
Of many worthy fellows that were out;
Which was to my belief witnessed the rather
For that I saw the tyrant’s power afoot.
215Now is the time of help. Your eye in Scotland
Would create soldiers, make our women fight
To doff their dire distresses.
MALCOLMBe ’t their comfort
We are coming thither. Gracious England hath
220Lent us good Siward and ten thousand men;
An older and a better soldier none
That Christendom gives out.
ROSSWould I could answer
This comfort with the like. But I have words
225That would be howled out in the desert air,
Where hearing should not latch them.
MACDUFFWhat concern
The general cause, or is it a fee-grief
230Due to some single breast?
ROSSNo mind that’s honest
But in it shares some woe, though the main part
Pertains to you alone.
MACDUFFIf it be mine,
235Keep it not from me. Quickly let me have it.
Let not your ears despise my tongue forever,
Which shall possess them with the heaviest sound
That ever yet they heard.
MACDUFFHum! I guess at it.
240Your castle is surprised, your wife and babes
Savagely slaughtered. To relate the manner
Were on the quarry of these murdered deer
To add the death of you.
MALCOLMMerciful heaven!—



ACT 4. SC. 3

245What, man, ne’er pull your hat upon your brows.
Give sorrow words. The grief that does not speak
Whispers the o’erfraught heart and bids it break.
MACDUFFMy children too?
Wife, children, servants, all that could be found.
250And I must be from thence? My wife killed too?
ROSSI have said.
MALCOLMBe comforted.
Let’s make us med’cines of our great revenge
To cure this deadly grief.
255He has no children. All my pretty ones?
Did you say “all”? O hell-kite! All?
What, all my pretty chickens and their dam
At one fell swoop?
MALCOLMDispute it like a man.
MACDUFF260I shall do so,
But I must also feel it as a man.
I cannot but remember such things were
That were most precious to me. Did heaven look on
And would not take their part? Sinful Macduff,
265They were all struck for thee! Naught that I am,
Not for their own demerits, but for mine,
Fell slaughter on their souls. Heaven rest them now.
Be this the whetstone of your sword. Let grief
Convert to anger. Blunt not the heart; enrage it.
270O, I could play the woman with mine eyes
And braggart with my tongue! But, gentle heavens,
Cut short all intermission! Front to front
Bring thou this fiend of Scotland and myself.
Within my sword’s length set him. If he ’scape,
275Heaven forgive him too.



ACT 4. SC. 3

(Video) Macbeth - Act 4 Scene 3

MALCOLMThis tunegoes manly.
Come, go we to the King. Our power is ready;
Our lack is nothing but our leave. Macbeth
Is ripe for shaking, and the powers above
280Put on their instruments. Receive what cheer you
The night is long that never finds the day.
They exit.


What happened in Act 4 Scene 3 of Macbeth? ›

Summary: Act 4, scene 3

Outside King Edward's palace, Malcolm speaks with Macduff, telling him that he does not trust him since he has left his family in Scotland and may be secretly working for Macbeth. To determine whether Macduff is trustworthy, Malcolm rambles on about his own vices.

Were I king I should cut off the nobles for their lands? ›

But Malcolm goes on to declare that he's also so avaricious that "were I king, / I should cut off the nobles for their lands, / Desire his jewels and this other's house: / And my more-having would be as a sauce / To make me hunger more" (4.3. 78-82).

Who says Devilish Macbeth? ›

Macduff refuses to give up his loyalty to the Scottish royal family. Malcolm reveals his deception and contrasts the 'integrity' and 'good truth and honour' of Macduff with that of 'Devilish Macbeth'. He finishes by saying that he completely trusts Macduff - 'I put myself to thy direction'.

What is Malcolm's opinion of Macbeth in Act 4 Scene 3? ›

Malcolm describes himself as so lustful, vicious, and greedy that he makes Macbeth look kind. Macduff cries out in horror, and says he will leave Scotland forever since there is no man fit to rule it. Malcolm then reveals that none of his self-description was true: it was a trick to test Macduff's loyalty.

What is the main purpose of Act 4 in Macbeth? ›

Act 4 concerns Macbeth's growing fears about Macduff's loyalty, which are increased by the witches' prophecies and Macduff's decision to go to England. Ultimately, Macbeth secures his own downfall by murdering Macduff's family, as Macduff is now desperate for revenge.

Is Ross in Macbeth good or evil? ›

Ross isn't usually considered one of the plum supporting roles in Shakespeare's play, at least not compared with Banquo or Macduff. But Coen invests the character with diabolical purpose, giving him a hand in the machinations that only escalate after Macbeth murderously seizes the throne.

Is Malcolm in Macbeth a virgin? ›

Only when Macduff is practically ripping his hair out with despair about "O Scotland, Scotland," and "thy hope ends here" (4.3. 17) does Malcolm go, "Psych!" Turns out, he's none of those things. Not only is he not interested in all of Scotland's maidens, he's actually a virgin.

Who is named king at the end of the play? ›

In the midst of a losing battle, Macduff challenges Macbeth. Macbeth learns Macduff is the child of a caesarean birth (loophole!), realises he is doomed, and submits to his enemy. Macduff triumphs and brings the head of the traitor Macbeth to Malcolm. Malcolm declares peace and goes to Scone to be crowned king.

Why does Malcolm not want to be king? ›

Malcolm tests Macduff by stating that he is unfit to be king, as he is too greedy and lustful. Macduff's primary concern is the well-being of Scotland. When Malcolm sees that Macduff will not allow an unfit king to rule, he asks Macduff to fight with him and tells Ross that he will return with soldiers from England.

Is Macduff a soldier? ›

Macduff is the Thane of Fife – he is loyal to Duncan and upset by his death. He is willing to defy Macbeth by refusing to attend the coronation and banquet, and puts his family at risk by meeting Malcolm in England. He is the soldier who kills Macbeth.

Are you a man Macbeth? ›

When you durst do it, then you were a man; And to be more than what you were, you would Be so much more the man” (1.7. 49-51). In this quote Lady Macbeth is manipulating her husband Macbeth by speaking of his manhood. She gains more and more control over Macbeth as the play goes on.

Why does Lady Macduff call her husband a traitor? ›

In Scene 2, Lady Macduff complains about her husband and how he is a coward for leaving his family. She is angry and believes that “when our actions do not, our fears make us traitors” (4.2. 5), meaning she thinks he ran away to England out of cowardice, and that makes him a traitor to his family.

Why does Malcolm say to Macduff that he Malcolm is more evil than Macbeth? ›

Why does Malcolm pretend he is more evil than Macbeth? He is testing Macduff's integrity because – with all the spies and traitors that Macbeth has created – he is afraid that Macduff might be on Macbeth's side.

How is Malcolm's character revealed in the dialogue with Macduff in Scene 3? ›

16) How is Malcolm's character revealed in the dialogue with Macduff in scene iii? - He mentions his character fouls but kind and caring then he becomes a warrior.

What finally convinces Malcolm? ›

In Scene iii, what finally convinces Malcolm that Macduff is loyal? Scotland? day a gash / Is added to her wounds."

How do the three witches influence Macbeth's actions in Act 4? ›

The witches tell him 4 things, through apparitions, or ghostly images. The first apparition warns him to beware of Macduff, one of the Scottish noblemen loyal to Duncan, the murdered king. This compels Macbeth to plot to kill Macduff, just to be sure.

What 3 prophecies do the witches give Macbeth in Act 4? ›

He talks to them to get information on Malcolm and Macduff The witches give him three warnings that are "Beware of Macduff, be ruthless, bold, and decisive. No man born to a women can harm Macbeth and will not be defeat till until Great Birnam Wood marches to fight against him".

What happens at the end of Act 4 in Macbeth? ›

Macbeth demands to know the meaning of this final vision, but the witches perform a mad dance and then vanish. Lennox enters and tells Macbeth that Macduff has fled to England. Macbeth resolves to send murderers to capture Macduff's castle and to kill Macduff's wife and children.

Is Macbeth black? ›

2. The Diverse Cast. Probably the most notable difference between the film and the play is that the role of the Scottish King Macbeth is played by an African American. Not only that, but Macduff, his wife, and their son are played by Black actors.

Why does Ross save Fleance? ›

Like some other Macbeth adaptations, Coen uses Ross as the third murderer sent after Banquo and Fleance. Using Ross in this role suggests that, rather than the murderers simply failing to kill Fleance, Ross hid the child away to be used for his own purposes.

Who is Macbeth's son? ›

King Duncan
Created byWilliam Shakespeare
Based onDonnchad mac Crinain (Duncan I) of Scotland
In-universe information
ChildrenMalcolm, elder son and heir Donalbain, younger son
2 more rows

Who kills Malcolm in Macbeth? ›

Macduff flees to England, trying to find King Duncan's son Malcolm and restore him as rightful king but meanwhile, Macbeth has Macduff's wife and children murdered. Full of grief and revenge, he persuades Malcolm to lead an army against Macbeth, challenges Macbeth one-to-one and slays him.

Is Malcolm evil in Macbeth? ›

Character Analysis Malcolm

If Macduff is the stereotypical revenger, Malcolm is the embodiment of all that is good in kingship, and this is seen particularly in Act IV, Scene 3, in which he tests the allegiance of Macduff. His testing of Macduff, although dramatically longwinded, is psychologically accurate.

Is Malcolm Banquo's son? ›

His decision to pass the kingdom to his son Malcolm provokes his untimely death at the hands of Macbeth. Fleance Banquo's son, who, by escaping Macbeth's plot on his life, will go on to be father to a line of kings. Donalbain and Malcolm Duncan's two sons.

Who kills Macbeth in the end? ›

In the play Macbeth, Macbeth dies at the hands of Macduff, a nobleman and the Thane of Fife. After Macbeth murdered Duncan, it was Macduff who discovered the body. Later his wife, Lady Macduff, was murdered by Macbeth.

Why is the 3 eyed Raven important? ›

Greensight - The three-eyed raven was an ancient and immensely powerful greenseer who could perceive the past, present and future through visions and time travel with ease.

Who kills Macbeth at the end of the play? ›

Macduff is loyal to King Duncan, even after he is murdered. He loves Scotland and puts his family at risk to help raise an army to topple Macbeth's tyrannical rule. Macbeth kills his wife and young family. Macduff fights and kills Macbeth by decapitating him.

Why did Malcolm lie about who he is? ›

Malcolm lies to Macduff by telling him he is unfit to be king, but he is actually just seeing if Macduff is trustworthy. Macduff says Malcolm would still be a better king than Macbeth but eventually his loyalty to Scotland leads him to agree that Malcolm would be an unfit king.

Is Malcolm a good king? ›

Malcolm, however, was the rightful king, not Macbeth, because he was so named by his father, and he would be a good king because he is cunning, intelligent, and he cares about the people. Malcolm is loyal to his people and will not abuse his power like "devilish Macbeth" (IV. iii. 136).

Why does Duncan name Malcolm his heir? ›

In Scotland, at this time in history, a king's eldest son did not necessarily inherit the crown. By naming Malcolm, Duncan runs the risk of disappointing other potential candidates, including his nephew Macbeth. We could therefore see this action as an error of judgement on Duncan's behalf.

Was Macduff born a woman? ›

Although Macbeth believes that he cannot be killed by any man born of a woman, he soon learns that Macduff was "from his mother's womb / Untimely ripped" (Act V Scene 8 lines 2493/2494) — meaning that Macduff was born by caesarean section.

Is Macduff good or evil? ›

In all events of the play, Macduff acts to combat tyranny and all that is evil, making him a truly righteous character. From serving King Duncan to protecting Scotland and taking the throne back from Macbeth, Macduff acts in service of what is morally just and does not boast in his deeds or in any way act for himself.

Who kills Macduff's family? ›

Macduff now challenges Macbeth. Macbeth, guilty of the murders of Macduff's family, urges him to turn away. Macduff reveals that he was removed from his mother's womb, and therefore not, in fact, born of a woman. Macbeth understands at last the witches' equivocation, and dies by Macduff's sword.

What happened in Act 4 Scene 4 of Macbeth? ›

When Banquo and his son Fleance leave the scene, Macbeth's imagination begins to taunt him. He believes that he sees a blood covered dagger, pointed towards King Duncan's sleeping chamber. A bell signaled by Lady Macbeth, warns her envious husband that the time has come to kill King Duncan.

What are the 3 prophecies in Macbeth Act 4? ›

He talks to them to get information on Malcolm and Macduff The witches give him three warnings that are "Beware of Macduff, be ruthless, bold, and decisive. No man born to a women can harm Macbeth and will not be defeat till until Great Birnam Wood marches to fight against him".

What does Lady Macbeth say to Macbeth in Act 3 Scene 4? ›

Lady Macbeth says that he needs sleep, and they retire to their bed.

What do Act 3 Scene 4 say about Macbeth's character? ›

The uncertainty emphasizes that Macbeth's fate is part of him, caused by his character: his ambition and guilt. Lady Macbeth tells the thanes not to worry, that since childhood Macbeth has suffered fits. She pulls Macbeth aside and once again questions his manhood. The ghost disappears.

Macbeth, William Shakespeare, scene summary, scene summaries, chapter summary, chapter summaries, short summary, criticism, literary criticism, review, scene synopsis, interpretation, teaching, lesson plan.

uYo ewer one of ihs iotasefvr.. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace,. Such sanctity hath heaven given his hand. idD you yas lla?. llA we hvae to do now is asy oodbegy to hte nigk.. uYo ewer one of ihs iotasefvr.. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace,. Such sanctity hath heaven given his hand. idD you yas lla?. llA we hvae to do now is asy oodbegy to hte nigk.

Read Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Act 3, scene 4 for free from the Folger Shakespeare Library! Full text, summaries, illustrations, guides for reading, and more.

Enter Macbeth, Lady ⌜Macbeth,⌝Ross, Lennox, Lords, and Attendants.MACBETHYou know your own degrees; sit down.. Tomorrow35We’ll hear ourselves again.Murderer exits.LADY MACBETHMy royal lord,You do not give the cheer.. LENNOX55Here is a place reserved, sir.MACBETHWhere?LENNOXHere, my good lord.. This is more strangeThan such a murder is.LADY MACBETH100My worthy lord,Your noble friends do lack you.MACBETHI do forget.—Do not muse at me, my most worthy friends.I have a strange infirmity, which is nothing105To those that know me.. Fill full.I drink to th’ general joy o’ th’ whole tableAnd to our dear friend Banquo, whom we miss.110Would he were here!. You make me strangeEven to the disposition that I oweWhen now I think you can behold such sights140And keep the natural ruby of your cheeksWhen mine is blanched with fear.ROSSWhat sights, mylord?LADY MACBETHI pray you, speak not.

Macduff meets up with Malcolm in England and the two make plans for how to overthrow Macbeth and take back their kingdom. Malcolm’s a little suspicious of Macduff though, so he attempts to suss out whether the thane is loyal to Scotland, or just in it for himself. After Macduff proves himself loyal, the two of them join up with ten thousand troops to take down Macbeth. Ross arrives, bringing news that Macduff’s family has died, but that if he returns to Scotland, there are a lot of folks who would happily join with him to fight Macbeth. Vowing revenge, Macduff resolves to return to Scotland and murder Macbeth himself.

I’ll grieve for what I believe is wrong, I’ll believe whatever I know is true, and when the time is right, I’ll act on whatever I can fix.. Just because many evil things attempt to appear good, doesn’t mean there aren’t things that appear good which are genuine.. But, in spite of all this, even if I trample the tyrant’s head under my foot, or stick it on my sword, my poor country will be more full of vice than before, suffer more, and in more terrible ways, all because of the person wearing the crown.. It would be better to have Macbeth than someone like me as king.. And there can’t be so much lust in you that you’d run out of women willing to give themselves to the king once they know he wants them.. All the characteristics of a good king – justice, honesty, self-control, stability, generosity, perseverance, forgiveness, humility, love, patience, courage, determination – I don’t have any of them!. I’m still a virgin, I’ve never told a lie, I’ve barely coveted what I own myself, I’ve never broken a promise, I wouldn’t betray the devil himself to his fellow devil, and I love the truth as much as I love life itself.. He’s from Scotland, but I don’t know him.. Please don’t hate me forever for having to tell you the worst news that you’ve ever heard.. Come on, let’s go to the king.

A summary of Act 4, scenes 1-3 in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Macbeth and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.

Macbeth resolves to send murderers to capture Macduff’s castle and to kill Macduff’s wife and children.. At Macduff’s castle, Lady Macduff accosts Ross, demanding to know why her husband has fled.. When one of them denounces Macduff, Macduff’s son calls the murderer a liar, and the murderer stabs him.. Outside King Edward’s palace, Malcolm speaks with Macduff, telling him that he does not trust him since he has left his family in Scotland and may be secretly working for Macbeth.. At first, Macduff politely disagrees with his future king, but eventually Macduff cannot keep himself from crying out, “O Scotland, Scotland!” (4.3.101).. The nihilism of King Lear, in which the very idea of divine justice seems laughable, is absent in Macbeth —divine justice, whether Christian or not, is a palpable force hounding Macbeth toward his inevitable end.. The murder of Lady Macduff and her young son in Act 4, scene 2, marks the moment in which Macbeth descends into utter madness, killing neither for political gain nor to silence an enemy, but simply out of a furious desire to do harm.. As Malcolm and Macduff reason in Act 4, scene 3, Macbeth’s is the worst possible method of kingship.. In a sense, both Malcolm and Macduff share this virtue—the love they hold for Scotland unites them in opposition to Macbeth, and grants their attempt to seize power a moral legitimacy that Macbeth’s lacked.. Macduff and Malcolm are allies, but Macduff also serves as a teacher to Malcolm.. When Ross brings word of Lady Macduff’s murder, Malcolm tells Macduff: “Dispute it like a man” (4.3.221).

Maclcolm and Macduff discuss the sufferings of Scotland under Macbeth’s rule.

Maclcolm and Macduff discuss the sufferings of Scotland under Macbeth’s rule.. Malcolm insists, however, that he would make a far worse king than Macbeth himself, detailing all of his various sins.. Macduff brushes them all aside as irrelevant, until Malcolm convinces him that he is an appalling human being and Macduff weeps at the thought of Scotland suffering yet further.. They are interrupted by an English Doctor who informs them that the King, who has offered ten thousand men to help Malcolm overthrow Macbeth, is coming out of his palace to cure an evil plague by his touch.. He swears not to rest until he has killed Macbeth, and Malcolm urges that they go to the King of England and receive their forces.. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace,. Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure,. For goodness dare not check thee; wear thou thy wrongs,. Scotland hath foisons to fill up your will. To thy good truth and honor.. Such sanctity hath heaven given his hand,. Is there scarce ask’d for who, and good men’s lives. Now is the time of help; your eye in Scotland. Fell slaughter on their souls.. O, I could play the woman with mine eyes,


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